The United Nations Security Council is one of the six main organs of the United Nations. Its responsibility is the maintenance of international peace and security. It determines the existence of a threat to peace or an act of aggression. It may call on parties to de-escalate a dispute or even command the use of force to solve a conflict. The Security Council is composed of 15 Member States, amongst them the permanent five members that have the right to veto a resolution.
This year’s topics:
Topic A: Situation in the Central African Republic
For years the Central African Republic (CAR) has been amongst the most fragile states of the world. Efforts to find a solution to the recurring intercommunity violence in most parts of the country have fallen short in providing peace and stability. Acts of violence between sectarian groups have led UN officials speaking of first signs of ethnic cleansing and even genocide. The presence of the UN peacekeeping mission MINUSCA and its efforts to support the authorities of the CAR to restore order have played a crucial in bringing some relief to the country. Nevertheless, the high number of armed groups controlling large parts of the CAR make the provision of much needed humanitarian aid increasingly difficult leaving thousands of people in need of assistance. Especially in past months peacekeepers as well aid workers have been targeted by armed groups making the CAR one of the most dangerous countries not only for civilians but also for those who seek to help.
With continuing violence in most of the country and an increasingly difficult humanitarian situation, it is now upon the Security Council to reevaluate the effectiveness of the measures already taken and to try to find ways to contain the current waves of violence and to improve the situation of the people affected in the CAR.
Topic B: Post ISIS Syrian Question
The majority of the discussion within this topic is expected to revolve around the political questions surrounding an ISIS-free Syria. Some of these questions include whether Assad will be allowed to continue; if yes, under what conditions and for how much longer, and if not, what a transition might look like. The topic also includes questions such as the legal repercussions of the civil war and the process towards reconciliation/deliverance of justice. Discussions will also focus on the return of Syrian refugees currently abroad, the need to revamp the political system in the country to allow for greater representation, and the rebuilding of the country. Delegates are also encouraged to focus on ethnic questions within the country, especially with regards to the areas under YPG (Kurdish People Protection Units) control, and whether a definitive end to ISIS will mean a call for an independent Kurdish state in Syria and its effects on the overall security the situation in the country. These are some of the main concerns that delegates are expected to work through at the conference.
List of available countries/positions:
USA*, Russia*, France*, China*, UK*, Ivory Coast, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Kuwait, Kazakhstan, Peru, Bolivia, Sweden, Netherlands, Poland.